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Hardness: 2.5 Luster: Metallic
The color of gold depends on the amount. of impurities it contains. Native gold is typically golden yellow. The purity varies from 9, 14,18, 24 carats which is pure gold. To vary the color and hardness of gold used in jewellery, gold may be alloyed to other materials:
¡ETo give a pale or white gold, silver, platinum, nickel, or zinc may be added
¡ETo get red and pink color, copper may be added
¡ETo obtain a tinge of blue, iron may be added

The main gold-bearing rocks occur in Africa, California, Alaska (USA), Canada, the former USSR, South America and Australia.

Hardness: 2.5 Luster: Metallic
When newly mined or polished, silver is bright, silver-white color and metallic luster. However, on exposure to oxygen in the air, a black layer of silver oxide readily forms, tarnishing the surface. Besides, silver is too soft to be used in its pure form. Therefore, silver is often alloyed with other metals, or given a covering layer of gold.

Sterling silver contains 92.5 per cent or more pure silver. This is used as standard to define silver content.

Most silver is a byproduct of lead mining, and is often associated with copper. The main silver mining areas of the word are South America, the USA, Australia, and the former USSR. Mexico is the greater single producer of silver, while Norway produces the finest native silver, which occurs naturally in the shape of twisted wire.

Rhodium plating results a metallic luster, silver-white color, and with high reflection to 80%. It can protect alloy such as silver, from oxidation in the oxygen air, in order to keep the brightness.

Hardness: 10 Luster: Adamantine
Diamond is the hardest mineral on Earth, combines with its exceptional luster and brilliant fire, it is the most highly prized gem among all.

Pure, colorless diamond is the most popular. Other varieties from yellow, brown, green, blue, pink, red, grey, and black, formed depending on its impurities, are also precious and rare in the word.

Today, Australia is the main producers. Others include Ghana, Sierra Leone, Zaire, Botswana, Namibia, the former USSR, the USA and Brazil.

Famous diamond:

Cullinan:
The largest rough diamond ever found in the word. Discovered in 1905, South Africa, weighted 3,106 ct. It was cut into 9 major tones and 96 smaller stones.
The largest stone weighed 530.20 ct, pear shape and set in the Imperial Scepter.

Koh-i-Nor: (Mountain of light)
First mentioned in 1304, weighted 186ct, oval cut. Re-cut to 105.6ct and now set in the Queen Mother¡¦s Crown.

Hope:
Famous by its natural blue color, weighed 44.52ct, cushion shaped, believed coming from India. Now, it is a part of collection in Smithsonian Institution, Washington, USA .

Garnet Amethyst Aquamarine Diamond
Faith,eternity & truth. Luck, wit & health. Happiness,
understanding &
everlasting youth.
Eternity, courage &
health.
Emerald Pearl Ruby Peridot
Fidelity, goodness &
love.
Peace, nobility &
beauty.
Love, enthusiasm &
strength.
Success, peace &
luck.
Sapphire Opal Topaz Turquoise
Serenity, truth &
noble soul
Purity, hope & health. Wisdom, courage &
sincerity.
Love, happiness &
luck.